History of the Homeopathic Medicine in Mexico (1849-1999)
The long period of peace and prosperity from the porfiriato (1876-1811) finally allow the agrupations of study to prosper so they could build homeopathic schools and hospitals (3). After a brief period of democracy government of Francisco I. Madero (15 months) once again the war and destruction isolated our country, this time was the Mexican Revolution, a fratricidal and fateful war; it last more than a decade.
After the assassination of Alvaro Obregon in 1924, the Gral. Plutarco Elias Calles was the dominant figure of the mexican political. During his government, characterized by the marxism tendency and religious persecution lead to the Cristeros war (1927-1929), event which count with more popular participation than the Mexican war.
In 1928 started the period denominated maximato, since Calles autoproclaime "Maximum Chief of the Revolution". After the brief internal government of Emilio Portes Gil and Pascual Ortiz Rubio, took position of the government the Gral. Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940), last military in the presidency of the Republic. In his period o social order was stablished and Calles was exile of all political influence. It was during this period that the homeopaths free their most intenses batles, leading to defeat the President of the Republic (4).
During the next government the country started a long period of recuperation, leading his maximum in the government of Adolfo Ruiz Cortines (1952-1958), Adolfo Lopez Mateos (1958-1964) and Gustavo Diaz Ordaz (1964-1970). This epoch was known by the economist language as the "stabilizing development", in which Mexico delight a firmness economic.
During the next period (1970-1976) our economy started to spoil and at the end a huge devaluation of the peso (from 12.50 to 20 pesos per dollar), the parity of the peso was removed and this was the first crisis of many to occurred until now.
These last years had been characterized for the many monetary devaluations, in a word, economic crisis, this situations persists until our days.
In January 1994 a guerrilla initiated in the south of Mexico, with the movement of the Ejercito Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, a conflict not solve until now.
THE FIRSTS (1849-1893)
The introduction and the practice of the homeopathic medicine correspond to spain doctors who came from Cuba to our country. There are many versions about who was the first, but after cautious investigations we can say Dr. Cornelio Andrade y Baz, who arrive the mexican coasts in 1849 was the first to come. He came as the family doctor of the Bringas family and remain six year in Mexico, residing in Orizaba, Veracruz (2).
In 1850 the enter of Dr. Ramon Comellas was registered, a catalan exprofesor of the Valencia University and as other distintions, founder of the Instituto Medico Valenciano (3).
He is the author of the firs homeopathic publication in Mexico, with the title, "Reseña sobre la homeopatía dedicada a los mexicanos (A brief description about homeopathy dedicated to mexicans)" (5). This written of 24 pages, contains a brief historic introduction and the principals indications for the homeopathic patient. The fact of this written, as been the first to be teach to his disciples, Julian Gonzalez and Rafael Degollado, acredit him as the introductor of the homeopathy in Mexico.
Dr. Salvador Riera, also a spain, with titles from the Universities of Madrid and the Habana, arrieved Merida, Yucatan in 1851, where he would protagonized the firsts chapters of the homeopathy history in Yucatan (6).
In 1854 the enter of Dr. Jose Maria Carbo was registered, a catalan doctor proceeding from Cuba, he came specifically to fight the epidemic of the yellow fever who was devasting Veracruz (7). His distinguished work with the ills at his charge in the Castillo of San Juan Ulua, worthed a recognized by the President Santa Anna and the first oficially permit to practice the Homeopathy in the Mexican Republic (8).
In 1855 arrived our country Dr. Narciso Sanchiz, who instructed the firsts mexicans practicers, Alfredo Dominguez Ugalde and Pablo Fuentes Herrera (9).
In 1861 Dr. Fuentes Herrera and Pascual Bielsa, found the first homeopathic agrupation in Mexico, the "Sociedad Homeopática de México", with the intention of testing the national flora and fauna with the aim of working out a Mexican Materia Medica. The magazine edited by this group, was denominated "La Gaceta" it was the first of its kind in Mexico (9). Unfortunally the political conditions determined a few months of life for this institution (9).
The first Mexican doctor converted to the homeopathy was Dr. Cresencio Colín, he was converted to the homeopathy by Dr. Jose Puig in 1870. This man of exemplary dedication was the principal promoter and diffuser of the historic dawns of the homeopathy in Mexico (10).
The controvertial figure of Julian Gonzalez role an important paper those days. Some authors consider him a doctor (10) others like Ignacio Fernandez de Lara (2) consider him a practicer. This man was borned in Burgos, España in 1832 (2), he was the first disciple of Dr. Comellas, and the second to published about homeopathy in Mexico. His book "tratado práctico de homeopatía y guía de las familias" it new two editions, in 1871 (10) and 1879 (11). This textbook contains, a Materia Medica with clinic refences and an index of 656 remedies with the ones he counted in his pharmacy, where don Julian ocasionally consulted the residents and at the inner of the country by mail (11).
Julian Gonzales also found the first homeopathic pharmacy in Mexico, in 1867. In 1869 the pharmacy stayed in charge of Dr. Joaquin Salas, it was installed at the San Francisco street Nº 12. Later on, the pharmacy change address, to Av 5 de Mayo Nº 17, subsequently the streets of Tacubaya and finally at Belisario Dominguez Nº 47 (8).
In 1869, thanks to Fuentes Herrera and Julian Gonzalez, efforts the principales homeopathas of the epoch got together with the aim of founding a new homeopathic organization. On August 18, the proyect was presented giving as a result the "Instituto Homeopático Mexicano". This group started its activities on April 10, 1870. It did not only had the objective of the study and spreading, but also had the objective of scientific and rational discussion, the resulsts were published on the magazine "El Propagador Homeopático". (3) This publication was in charge of the Drs. Francisco Perez Ortiz and Jose T. Hidalgo.
In 1871, Dr. Rafael Degollado founded the first homeopathic hospital in Mexico, in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato. Unfortunally his life was short (8). This construction still remains at the street Diez de Sollano and Davalos number 15. In 1980, the "Asociación de Médicos Homeópatas Cirujanos y Parteros del Centro A. C.", placed a commemorative plaque, which it still remains until our days (12).
The homeopathy was diffuse in many parts of the Republic, Dr. Francisco Marchena in Puebla; Miguel Cruz y Canto in Toluca; Nemesio de los Santos Rubio in Yucatan; and Dr. ismael Talavera in Veracruz continued with the work initiated by Ramon Comellas in 1851 (13).
In 1874, the "Sociedad Médico Homeopática Mexicana" (13) was founded in Mexico City, initiated by Drs. Enrique Carrera Lardizabal, Valdes y Morales, Barona, Medina, Chavez, Antonio Salas, Ramirez de Arellano, Jose T. Hidalgo, Rafael Navarrete and Pablo Fuentes y Herrera, and others. They stablished a consultory where they gave 8,947 consultations during their first year (8). The organ of such institution was denominated "El Faro Homeopático", whose first number was published on April 15, 1874 (9).
The autumn of 1874 marked the reorganization of the "Mexican Homeopathic Institute" under new statutes and a coordinated activited for the diffuse of homeopathy. The conferences reinitiated on November 21. (14).
Its new publication was denominated "La Reforma Médica", and was edited as the second epoch of the "Propagador Homeopático". Appears for the first time on January, 1875.
The diplomas granted by the Institute were beautifully design: they contained in the upper part the image of Samuel Hahnemann, enclosed in a square, in the lower part an eagle with their distend wings; two columns at the sides with, the leyends of Materia Medica and Enfermedades Cronicas in the left side and fisiological experimentation at the right side. It also contained the seal of the institution, the firms of the President and the Secretary so as the leaf of the respective registered book (15).
In 1879 two legislations oficially recognized the homeopathic medicine, thankful to the efforts of Francisco Marchena in Puebla and Ismael Talavera in Veracruz, both homeopathic pioners on the mexican province. Juan Crisostomo Bonilla, Gobernor of Puebla (16) and Gral. Luis Mier y Teheran, Gobernor of Veracruz (17) emitted their decree instituting the teaching and the practice of the homeopathy in their states.
In 1885, the Mexican Homeopathic Institute and the Mexican Medico Homeopathic Society had been fall in a long and deep lethargy. It was thankful to Cresencio Colin, Dr. Oriard of french nationality, and a young aristocratic doctor called Joaquin Segura y Pesado the homeopathic lived a new stage (18). Dr. Segura y Pesado already had been in touch with homeopathy with the lecture of the Organon and some writtens of Leon Simon. He travelled to Germany and France to meet the new medicine by then he had already prescribe homeopathics remedies, which had been given to him by Cresencio Colin (19).
After the personal visited of Dr. Colin to all homeopaths residing in Mexico City (20), the formation of a new group of study and diffusion was convocated. The new agrupation, called as the "Circulo Homeopático Mexicano", was going to albergue all the followers of the homeopathic medicine in Mexico and would try to create ties of union and fellowship betweem them.
The organ of this group was denominated "La Reforma Medica", the same name as in the first stage, when it was editated by the "Mexican Homeopathic Institute". Each publication included record of the meetings of the members from the "Circulo", so as the homeopathics articles and communications of homeopaths doctors from the inner of the country and the foreign. In the first number, edited on July 1, 1885, they talk for the first time about the use of high potencies in Mexico, in this case the 200 ch use by Dr. Joaquin Segura y Pesado in different respiratory illness.
Soon it was notice that the new society widely fulfilled with all its objetives. In each session new members were proposed and the roles of the "Circulo" grow more and more. When the colera threat again the coasts of Veracruz the homeopaths doctors were prepared to confront with homeopatic remedies and in fact they redact a pamphlet (21, 22).
In April 11, 1886, During the 131° aniversary celebration of Samuel Hahnemann´s birth and the first year of existence of the group, got together many personalities of homeopatic Society in Mexico, such as Bernardo de Mendizabal, colaborator and partidary of the homeopathy since it started the foundation of the "Mexican Homeopathic Institute" by Drs. Puig and Perez Ortiz. As a maher of fact Mr Mendizabal auspice the unfortunate foundation of the homeopathic hospital at the Architects colony (23). All homeopaths doctors accord with the idea of crystallize the ideals and efforts of the pioners of the homeopathic medicine in Mexico. The last cheer of the celebration was dedicated to all this homeopaths pioners in our country (23).
As the result of this celebration there was a huge afiliation to the "Circulo" and a great disposition to keep on the fight for the homeopathy.
The next number of "La Reforma Medica" appear with three months of delay on July 1886. It was not any more the organ of the "Circulo", once again it show on the cover the name of the "Mexican Homeopathic Institute". In its editorial, denominated, "Ave Fenix", the magazine publishers, Joaquín Segura y Pesado, Joaquin Gonzalez and Juan N. Arriga gave an explanation of this methamorphose (24). By the request of Francisco Aguilar with the objective of restoring the name of the prestigious institution, recognized by the legislations of Puebla and Veracruz, all the members of the "Circulo Homeopatico Mexicano" following the same rules, decided to denominate the group as "The Mexican Homeopathic Institute" once again. On the same editorial are consign the conflicts of the homeopaths in defense of their doctrine, with an appeal to the Superior Court. This renaissance had as an objective to have an order fight and determined to help the future of the homeopathic medicine in Mexico. To the usual contained there was add selected translation of materia medica and there were no more records of meetings from their members (24, 25).
On the edition of July 1887 of "La Reforma Medica" Dr. Francisco Felix Mendoza presented a written title as "El Articulo 3º y el ejercicio de la Medicina". After he fundamented the previous studies and toughts of homeopathic medicine in other places of the world, he proposed the establishement of a homeopathic medicine school by the doctors of the Institute, recognized by the government and as a maher of fact he designed the lessons as the construction of the college. The last two paragraphs are described below (26).:
"Mexican Government it is not your mission to impose the sciences but it is your mission to protect their liberty; achieve with this constitutional precept only this way you will do as the epoch requieres.
Mexican Homeopathic Institute, go on built as early as you can schools where you can teach with perfection our doctrine and from there will born truly mexican homeopaths doctors, with the official guarantee provided by the government as the only law in this country, be the Alma Mater".
At the beginning of 1888 the Mexican Homeopathic Institute inaugurate a free dispensary under the order of Dr. Ignacio Fernandez de Lara. The place was provided by Dr. Panfilo Carranza, actual president in his own house (27).
The proyect of the school was crystallize under the second presidency of Dr. Joaquin Segura y Pesado on 1889, with the establishement of a Medicine Academy, which would impart lessons of general medicine and also would teach homeopathy. The school iniated its clases with Dr. Segura y Pesado as a Director and Dr. Bernabe Hernandez as the secretary. The lessons were imparted by: Joaquin Segura y Pesado, Anatomy; Ignacio Fernandez de Lara, Clinic; Pablo Fuentes y Herrera, Materia medica; Juan N. Arriaga, Patology; Miguel Bachiller, Hygiene; Joaquin Gonzalez, Surgery; Pablo Barona, Fisiology; and Manuel M. de Legarreta, Farmacology (28).
The academy initially started its work in the streets of the Canoa No. 6 and 7 (now Donceles), later it pass to the street of Santa Teresa 18 (now Republica de Guatemala). Its first student was Fidel de Regules (28).
By the year of 1892 the role of the Mexican Homeopathic Institute and its Academy was very important. In a small private hospital in Tacubaya Dr. Segura y Pesado had freely attended a great number of patients, recoring carefully its clinic files, with the ones he will established the efficient of the homeopathic medicine (28).
As a matter of fact, it was a homeopathic cure what predisposed Gral. Porfirio Diaz, governor of our country those years, to help the homeopathy.
According to the relate of one of his own daughter the President was treated for an old osteomyelitis by Dr. Joaquin Segura y Pesado. The injury was a consequence of the battle of Veracruz, it heal in 10 days (29).
1893 was a key year in the History of the homeopathy in Mexico. The most important event was the foundation of the National Homeopathic Hospital, we will talk later about this event. Of a great importance was the foundation of the "Hahnemann Society", which retake the origin of the "Mexican Homeopathic Society" (30). This new organization was initially formed by Drs. Luis Alva, Juan N. Arriaga, Pablo Barona, Rafael V. Castro, Manuel Cordoba y Aristi, Feliciano Gomez Puente, Lino Mora, Jose I. Muñoz, Librado Ocampo, R. C. de los Rios, Amalio Romero and Mariano Valdez (31). Soon they count with new members of the Capital and many States of the Republic, such as Chihuahua, Guerrero, Michoacan, Sinaloa, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Queretaro, The State of Mexico, Hidalgo and Tlaxcala (32). In its first year got to have 45 members (28).
The diffusor organ was denominated "La Homeopatía", a magazine that deserves a special mention because of its contains and the continuity. It was edited uninterrupted until 1913, a year in which the political conditions of Mexico did not made possible the next publication since Mexico was in a full war (33).
During 1893 the responsible publishers were Juan N. Arriaga, Rafael V. Castro and Amalio Romero. The magazine consisted of a social directory, family section, scientific section, clinic notes and a great variety. It was accompanied by suplements for doctors, as the second edition of the Materia Medica of Farrington, the fascicles of a Marvelous City (ilustrated chapters of anatomy and fisiology), writen by Juan N. Arriaga, Characteristics of the Materia Medica of Allen, Characteristics of the Homeopathic therapy by Nash.
The first edition of "La Homeopatía" was rewarded with a diploma, a medal and by being exposed at the University of Paris in 1900 (28).
The second stage of the magazine was iniated in 1933, and the third on June of 1941, when the Similia Laboratories reiniated the edition, in the month of July 1941 it took the name of "La Homeopatía de México", with the one it is known at the time (34).
The "Hahnemann Society" worked hardly for the practice and diffution of the homeopathic medicine under the lemma "Constancia y estudio" (35). It was widely known and the magazine counted with an interchange with many countries in the world.
The edition of "La Homeopatía", the scientific sections and the work of their associates was suspended at the end of 1913, because of the revolutionary war (33).
The "Mexican Medico Homeopathic Society" functioned uninterrumpted until 1917. The last direction was constituted by Juan N. Arriaga as the President, Luis G. de Legarreta as the Secretary and Manuel A. Lizama as Prosecretary.
THE OFFICIALIZATION (1893-1921)
Being already the ideal moment to found a hospital, four doctors of the Homeopathic Medicine Academy called Joaquin Segura y Pesado, Ignacio Fernandez de Lara, Ignacio Maria Montaño and Fernando Gomez Suarez directed a request to Lic. Romero Rubio Minister of Government, to acquire a place where they may practice the homeopathy and prove the eficacy of this medicine. The extensive written in evidence the goods of the Hahnemanian method and the international situation of homeopathy, this doctors specifically requested the granting of a pavilion, recently equip and ready to use as a hospital (36).
This place had been equipped to face the epidemic tifo which was devastating the City of Mexico and it was known as the "Viejo Polvorín" or "Polvorín del Virreinato" (37).
The building showed in its facade ends of quarry and proudly shine in the front the emblem of lion and castile. It was located in the area of the "Cuartelito" and the government order to construct a bridge to communicate with the street of the Resguardo (37).
With their own money this four doctors initiated the hospital work, in the future this hospital will be known as the "Hospital Nacional Homeopatico".
One year later, the hospital would be officially inaugurated on July 15, 1894, counting with the presence of the President of the Republic, Gral. Porfirio Diaz; the Government Minister, Lic. Manuel Romero Rubio; and the Governor of the Federal District, Lic. Jose Ives Limantour (38).
Two years later, the Government analyse the results of the proyect, this results were overwhelming in favor of the homeopathy medicine, so once again the homeopathy had win in function of its own merits, and the establishement of an offial school for the first time in the history.
June 31, 1895, Gral. Porfirio Diaz emitted the presidential decree in favor of the "Escuela Nacional de Medicina Homeopatica" (39).
He also formulated the school regulations (40).
The borned school was installed at the National Homeopathic Hospital after the solemn ceremony of inauguration, January 4, 1896 (41).
Under Dr. Segura y Pesado direction both institutions functioned without any problem, under the government protection.
In 1909, the "Mexican Homeopathic Academy" was built - with the ideal of practice and diffuse an orthodox homeopathy, attached to Hahnemann´s taught´s. The founders were Higinio G. Perez, Alfredo Ortega, Francisco Castillo and Luis F. Porragas. The presidency and vicepresidency were grantted to Joaquin Segura y Pesado and Ignacio Fernandez de Lara respectively (42).
Soon new members enrol the academy and its work, such as, Rafael Isaias y Fernandez, Jose M. Nicoli, Rafael Conde Perea, Manuel Machado Sosa and Manuel Lizama (42).
The group functioned less than a year, and their last activity was the sorrowful commemoration of Samuel Hahnemann´s death on July 2, 1910 (43).
It is unknown the whys of the Mexican Homeopathy Academy desappearance, however, its members would played years later and important role in the history of the homeopathic medicine in our country.
On October 12, 1912, Dr. Higinio G. Perez founded the "Escuela Libre de Homeopatia" under special circumstances with the lemma "Por la verdad y por el bien".
At the end of Gral. Porfirio Diaz dictatorship our country lived a spirit of freedom and democracy; a period of renewal was initiated (1). Dr. Perez was a profesor at the National Homeopathic School of Medicine, a State dependent school. Once retired he was visitted by a group of ex students; he was asked to give taughts about homeopathic medicine. As the years passed emerge the idea of founding a homeopathic school without the government´s tutelary and orientated specifically to the workers class; so Dr. Perez accompanied by a group of homeopathy doctors gave rise to the project (44).
The Free Homeopathy School was found under three premise:
• A free professional taught.
• The possibility for the worker´s class to acquire a high level education.
• The attachment to the orthodox canons of the taught and practice of the homeopathic medicine.
The school functioning was very special. It was installed in Dr. Higinio G. Perez between the streets of Sta. Lucia nº 6, in the populous district of Peralvillo, and it was sustained by the founder´s money, Dr´s Higinio G. Perez. The profesors did not charge a cent for their classes and the low quotas paid by the students were use to solved the institution expenses. The classes iniated in January 1913, a few days after the "Decena Tragica" and continue the whole period of the "Mexican Revolution" (45).
The schedules were oriented to the worker´s class. The classes started from 6:30 to 9 a.m. and from 6 to 10 p.m. The dissection practices were taken at the Dolores cementery amphitheatre, where the students of the Free School of Medicine did their practices.
A school characteristic was the unity and fellowship of teachers and students. In 1917 started to function the secondary and preparatory annexed to the institution, this permitted to regularize the studies of the students since it was a requirement to have finished their preparatory studies in order to enter the Free Homeopathic School of Medicine, a requirement not requested in all schools those years (46).
At its started the legal support was the 3º Article of the 1857 Constitution, this Article guarantees the freedom of teaching.
During the hard years of the Mexican Revolution, the students of the Free School of Medicine, guided by Pastor G. Rocha visited Venustiano´s Carranza encampment, before he entered the City of Mexico and expose the necessity of a specific legislation for the Free School of Medicine. The leader recieve them and promise to support them.
At the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution, XXVII fraction, 73 Article, sustained the existence of the superior education even though it did not causes expenses to the national treasury (47), this was the response to the students of the Free School of Medicine.
The same year Dr. Alfredo Ortega found the "Free Homeopathic Institute of Mexico, finally joined in 1946 to the National School, since it did not obtained their officialization (28).
On July 2, 1918 the first Hahnemann´s monument was upraise, thakful to the efforts of Higinio G. Perez and the Free Homeopathy School of Medicine.
It was a bust sculptor in the National Academy of Bellas Artes by Dr. Trinidad Alvarado, graduated from the Free School; an adorned column which sustained the name of Hahnemann between two triumph lictors (45).
Even though the Mexican Revolution, both School and Hospital functioned without any problem, the hard situation of our country did not leave time to see the homeopaths.
WAR YEARS (1918-1940)
This 22 years are characterized for the terrible conflicts and persecutions against homeopathic doctors and their doctrine.
Unfortunaly it was also characterized for the fights between homeopaths own self, since the two schools did not have a good relationship. In fact the doctors of the National School never accepted the Free Homeopathic School of Medicine nor its students.
The first attack was in 1918 against the Free School of Puebla, when the governor, the allopathic doctor Alfonso Cabrera, emitted a decree to punished the exercise of the Homeopathy in the State. Dr. Juan Ollivier shelter in the name of all homeopaths against such injustice. After it got to the Justice Supreme Court of the Nation and two years of fight, the governor was defeated (48).
In the Capital, the Free School was in trouble since 1921, when the XXVII fraction of the 73 Article of the Constitution was derogated. First it denied the death certificates from the doctors of the Free School, alluding they did not have an official value. Lic. Querido Moheno, a personality in the juridical field then, took the judge to the Supreme Court of Justice (45), a judge won by doctors of the Free Homeopathic School. In 1926 the new Sanitary codes, required to the Free Homeopathic School to registered their titles to the National Autonomous University of Mexico, but of course they denied to register their titles at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (47). Even though the doctors of the Free School fulfill the requirements to practice in the United States of North America and they were members of north american homeopathic institutions such as (Dr. Eliud Garcia Treviño).
The Free School was inspected by distinguished personalities of the mexican politics, such as the Principal, Lic. Jose Vasconcelos, who pronounce in 1920 famous phrase:
"The University is disposed to support the Free Homeopathy School of Medicine any moment it requires".
At the time the Higinio G. Perez was the principal and kindly denied the ofert of incorporation to the UNAM. In fact, with a prophetic vision, since the National School in 1923 was incorporated and was about to desappear (8).
So insignificant resulted the words of Vasconcelos, since Dr. Alfonso Pruneda, as Principal of the University in 1926, did no even accepted to test the doctors from the Free School of Medicine who have requested to be examine in order to obtain their tittles (47).
President Plutarco Elias Calles perceive with symphaty the problematic of the homeopaths and send the minister of Education, Dr. Jose Manuel Puig Casauranc, to inspect the School. The impression was completely in favor of the School, however, the government did not action in order to sorve the problem.
Between endless problems, the Free School of Homeopathy organized the first International Homeopathic Congress in a Latin American land during the centenary of Samuel Hahnemann from august 10 to 16, 1929; this event was patronize by the Public Education Secretary. The headquarter place was the Panamerican Room of the National palace. Before this had only been celebrated in Europe (49).
It was on October of the same year when Lic. Emilio Portes Gil, graduated from the Free School of Law and provisional President then; legislated a Decree supporting the existence of the Free School, and in 1930 a Decree which legally sustained the Institution (47).
In 1933 the Representative Chamber verify the 4th Article of the Constitution. There was a project against Homeopathy and the legislators were about to succeed, (47). The project was frustrated thankful to the vigorous response of the homeopaths, throughout Dr. Castro who was a Representative then (29).
On the same epoch, the Free Homeopathic School of Puebla was taken by a group of students coming to blow with the school porter and the principal, Dr. Victor Manuel Oropeza, who snatch the Institution standard from the attacking students (48).
The National School also pass some very hard moments since it stop depending on the Secretary of Governmet in 1923. First it was incorporated to the UNAM, where initially it was given a fluent budget badly managed by its members (29). The homeopathy was convert into a Specialty depending on the High Studies Faculty. The principals did not move a hand to help the Homeopathy (8).
Since 1928 graceful to the Decree of President Calles, the School formed part of the Secretary of Public Education (29). First it was located at the Homeopathic National Hospital and then peregrinated without any support in any Principal´s house (Fidel de Regules and Jose Mayoral Pardo). When the School was about to died after a multiple attacks from the allopaths and the authority, in 1934 it was finally order the suspension of the classes. The students who had being afilliated since a year before in a Civil Association, legally pressure the prevention of such desaster. It is worth to mention the heads of the group were, Luis R. Salinas Ramos, Pedro Castellanos del Saz and Juan Manuel Ortiz de Zarate (8). This conflict involved legal funds, Workers Sindicate and Professional movilization inclusive a strike brighten of the Tecnicall Schools, this action allow the pass of the National School under Ing. Juan de Dios Batiz tutelary from the Tecnicall Taghts Department in 1935, and finally formed part of the founders institutions of IPN in 1937 (8).
Not all cases were gained against the authority as it shows the closure of The Homeopathic School of Medicine in Yucatan and the Hahnemann Hospital, by the arbitrary Gobernor Ing. Canto Echeverria, on February 11, 1938. Nevertheless there was a Decree from the State Legislation and a trial of Principals, Drs. Rafael Colome and Alonso V. Gamboa. Both were attacked and threaten of death (29), under this condition both desisted in their intent and the School as the Hospital desappeared.
In one of the countless problems of the Free Homeopathy School, the president it self influence by enemies of the School, in 1939 tried to abolish the Decree who was given a legal support to the Institution and destroy it.
This situation calls the attention since at the beginning of his government the School principals were invited to the taking over of Gral. Cardenas, who later would emmitted a Presidential Decree in order to close the School (50).
All kind of resorts were taken in order to defend the institution, from a trial of protection and the idea of closing up and hang out the strike flags on the doors in order to cease the oficially closure. The supposed strike teachers would not require a payment. In the most critical moments the students shelter on the roof with bricks and stones ready to defend before ledding die their School. After an anguish year, Dr. Julio Ulloa, School Principal and members of the Tecnich Administrative Council obtained a judgement in favor of the School. Under the protection judge nº 161-939 emitted in 1940, sanctionning the anticonstitutional acts of the Republic President, the Secretary of Public Education and the chief of the Federal District Police (4). Once again the Homeopathy have won.