Costa Rica - History of Homeopathy

1890 Bartolomé Marichal, a Colombian layman introduced homeopathy to Costa Rica.

1898 Gregorio G. Quesada graduated from Hahnemann College of Chicago and began to work for the legalization of homeopathy by the National Congress.

1901 The Faculty of Medicine, Surgery & Pharmacy issued the criterion that homeopathy was a medical specialization and that in order to guarantee its adequate practice it, it was necessary to become a medical doctor.

1921 Despite the interest of Gregorio G. Quesada, Alejandro VargasAraya, an osteopath, and over 300 citizens, who believed that homeopathy should be regulated independently from the Faculty of Medicine & Surgery, the National Congress finally legalizes it as part of said Faculty.

1927 There was a society, Liga Homeopática de Costa Rica, presided by an agronomist Enrique JiménezNúñez, who promoted homeopathy and published a unique newsletter called Fiat Lux Journal. Jiménez helped with homeopathic medicines in treating many citizens affected by the Spanish flu.

1932 Max Fischel's drugstore began importation and commercialization of homeopathic medicines.

1935 Raúl VillalónMontero who studied homeopathy at the National Council of Colombia was the first homeopath to practice legally in Costa Rica. VillalónMontero and a group of friends attempted without success, to change the regulation of homeopathy established by Congress in 1921. They wanted to separate it from the Faculty of Medicine & Surgery.

1940 Homeopathy is established by law as a branch of the science of Medicine and is regulated by a new institution, the Physicians & Surgeons Board (previously called Faculty of Medicine & Surgery).

1943-1946 A monthly newspaper, Orientación Nacional, was directed and published by Raúl VillalónMontero to promote homeopathy.

1949 Ricardo PérezCabrera, who studied homeopathy at the National Council of Colombia, becomes the first authorized homeopath by the Physicians & Surgeons Board.

1953 Marcos JiménezRodríguez, a philanthropist and graduated medical doctor, who studied homeopathy at Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia and later at Escuela Nacional de Homeopatía in México, was unable to establish his practice in Costa Rica because despite passing the tests for incorporation as a surgeon, the Board did not authorized him to practice surgery.

1960 German Naranjo, Rodolfo Wedel and Gonzalo VargasAguilar, were all medical doctors who practiced homeopathy in a private manner in San José.

1976 Álvaro VázquezArguedas a new homeopathic medical doctor, who studied at Instituto Politécnico Nacional in México, promoted and obtained approval for homeopathic physicians to participate in medical congresses organized by the Physicians & Surgeons Board.

1977 Marcos JiménezRodríguez again tried to settle in the country with the Homeopathic Foundation of Costa Rica. His goals were to build a homeopathic hospital and arrange for medical education. He did not have minimal, private or government support and abandoned the idea several years later.

1985 Alejandro BrenesValverde, a medical doctor with postgraduate studies of homeopathy from the Instituto Politécnico Nacional in México, started the academic revalidation of homeopathic diplomas by the University of Costa Rica.

1986 With the initiative of José AgüeroDelgado a social promoter, Álvaro VazquezArguedas, Carlos L MoyaTroyo, Alejandro BrenesValverde and the support of their families, organized the Fundación Costarricense de Medicina Homeopática - currently the Fundación Médica Homeopática Costarricense.

1986 The Health Ministry started the regulation for homeopathic medicines.

1987 Adolfo Aristeguieta-Gramcko, psychiatrist, homeopath and Venezuelan diplomatic, gave the first historic homeopathic conference at the Physicians & Surgeons Board. He oriented Costa Rican homeopathic medical doctors to contact the Venezuelan homeopathic school and the Liga Medica Homeopatica Internationalis. These actions served to set in motion the promotion of homeopathy in the medical field.

1988 The Health Ministry detected that 27% of the population uses homeopathy.

1989 Vladimir CarazoSerrano, a medical doctor began to teach free homeopathic courses at the University of Costa Rica.

1989 The Physicians & Surgeons Board started the promotion for the recognition by the government of homeopathy as a medical specialty.

1994 Through the final impulse of Manuel A. CortesVargas, Health ViceMinister, a government decree confirmed homeopathy as medical specialty.